Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
In 2005, 100 signatories including governments, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies, regional development banks, and international agencies endorsed the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The Declaration states that aid is more likely to promote development when:
- developing countries set their own strategies for poverty reduction, improve their institutions and tackle corruption (ownership).
- donors align behind developing countries‟ objectives and use local systems (alignment).
- donors coordinate, simplify procedures and share information to avoid duplication (harmonisation).
- developing countries and donors focus on development results and measure these results (managing for results).
- donors and partners are accountable to each other for development results (mutual accountability).
GAVI‟s way of working directly with developing countries reflects the five principles of ownership, alignment, harmonisation, managing for results and accountability. GAVI also works with WHO and partners to further the aid effectiveness agenda.
Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH)
A global health partnership, hosted by WHO, that joins the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) communities into an alliance of more than 300 members. The mission of the partnership is to support the global health community in working successfully towards achieving MDGs 4 and 5. See also Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and Millennium Development Goals.
A pentavalent vaccine is a vaccine that includes five antigens. GAVI funds pentavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Hib disease (DTP-Hep B-Hib vaccine).
Performance-based grants (also called "reward-based funding")
GAVI immunisation services support (ISS) funding is performance-based. Other types of performance-based funding are under development. See immunisation services support (ISS).
Phase 1 (also "GAVI phase 1")
GAVI's initial five-year period (2000-2005) is sometimes referred to as GAVI phase 1. During this period, the types of support offered to countries were immunisation services support, injection safety support, and support for new vaccines.
Phase 2 (also "GAVI phase 2")
In 2005, the GAVI Alliance Board endorsed a revision and expansion of policies to reflect experiences gained in phase 1 and address identified challenges. New initiatives being undertaken during this phase 2 include a new funding window for health system strengthening, increased outreach to civil society organisations (CSOs), including support for CSO activities, and the establishment of a pilot Advance Market Commitment (AMC) for pneumococcal vaccines.
The accelerated development and introduction plan (ADIP) “PneumoADIP” was created by GAVI in 2003 with an initial US$ 30 million grant for four years and was based at the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Its aim was to expedite the development of pneumococcal vaccines and accelerate their introduction in developing countries. In 2009, the PneumoADIP and the Rotavirus Vaccine Program were replaced with the Accelerated Vaccine Introduction initiative. See Accelerated Vaccine Introduction initiative (AVI).
Pneumococcal disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumonia. The bacterium can cause a range of infections, from relatively mild ear infections to fatal pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. Serious pneumococcal infections can occur throughout life, but children under two years old and the elderly are at highest risk. WHO estimates that more than 1.6 million people – including up to one million children under five – die every year from pneumococcal infections. In 2000, a new vaccine became available – a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) – that is safe and effective in children under two years old.
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease that can spread rapidly through communities. It invades the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. Over 50% of all cases are children under three years of age. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Amongst those paralysed, 5-10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilised. Efforts to eradicate polio have helped reduce the number of polio cases globally by over 99% since 1988. See also Global Polio Eradication Initiative.
Poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP)
A poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP) describes the macroeconomic, structural, and social policies and programmes that a country will pursue over several years to promote broad-based growth and reduce poverty. It also addresses external financing needs and the associated sources of financing. PRSPs are prepared by governments in low-income countries through a participatory process involving domestic stakeholders as well as external development partners, including the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
GAVI procures vaccines through UNICEF for the majority of GAVI countries. UNICEF uses “economies of scale” to negotiate the lowest prices possible. The six GAVI-eligible countries in the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) region use the PAHO revolving fund for procurement. Some countries also choose to use national procurement systems. Buying the vaccines for GAVI countries using this mechanism of pooled procurement allows greater leverage on the market to negotiate best prices.
GAVI supports countries in response to their demand, expressed through proposals. Proposals have to be linked to the country’s health and immunisation planning frameworks.
Public-private partnership (PPP)
A public-private partnership (PPP) denotes a collaborative arrangement between public and private sector institutions and actors. The GAVI Alliance partnership, which includes public, corporate and non-profit actors, draws on the specific strengths of each party to achieve a common goal.
Pull mechanisms provide a market incentive for increased commitment to vaccine and drug research and development. An incentive for industry‟s investment into product development is created by money only being paid out once a product has been developed. Should a manufacturer be unsuccessful, no funds are paid out. The Advance Market Commitment for pneumococcal vaccine is an example of a pull mechanism. See also push mechanisms and Advance Market Commitment (AMC).
A push mechanism uses direct funding to accelerate the development of a vaccine (eg direct funding of research in laboratories or universities). Push and pull funding are complementary sources of investment. Push mechanisms are intended to reduce the risks and costs of research and development investment, paying before a product is available. GAVI does not fund push mechanisms.
Reach Every District (RED)
Reach Every District is a WHO strategy that aims to achieve 80% immunisation coverage in all districts and 90% nationwide in WHO member states. RED aims to immunise every infant with all vaccines included in the countries' national immunisation schedules. The strategy focuses on building capacity from district level upward to maximise access to all vaccines, old and new.
Please see Performance-based grants.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in young children worldwide. It can result in acute dehydration, vomiting and fever, and is responsible for nearly 600,000 child deaths each year, mostly in developing countries. More than one third of diarrhoea deaths worldwide are caused by rotavirus.
Rotavirus Vaccine Program (RVP)
GAVI created the Rotavirus Vaccine Program in 2003 with an initial grant of US$ 30 million for four years. It was based at PATH in Seattle, USA and its aim was to expedite the development of rotavirus vaccines and accelerate their introduction in developing countries. At the beginning of 2009, the RVP and the PneumoADIP were replaced with the Accelerated Vaccine Introduction initiative.
When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% risk of passing the virus on to her foetus. This can cause death of the foetus or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), an important cause of severe birth defects in the ears, eyes, heart and brain. There are an estimated 110,000 cases of CRS each year. A vaccine exists, but is not widely available in developing countries. Rubella has been prioritised for GAVI’s future vaccine portfolio.
Safety boxes are part of GAVI's injection safety package, and are provided with all vaccines. They are puncture-proof boxes used for the storage of sharp wastes before they are incinerated.
Sector-wide approach (SWAp)
A sector-wide approach (SWAp) aims to support the health sector as a whole rather than focusing on individual, disease-specific projects. A sector is a clearly defined institutional and budget framework for which the implementing country government has defined policies. A SWAp may include contributing to a basket of funds and but not necessarily a specific programme approach.
Originally a corporate sector concept, a “stakeholder” is a party who affects, or can be affected by, an organisation's actions. In the GAVI Alliance, the definition of stakeholder includes all those involved in immunisation and child health.
A stockpile is a special vaccine reserve to be used in emergencies (such as supply disruptions or disease outbreaks).
Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs)
Supplementary immunisation activities are part of a range of immunisation strategies offered outside the usual parameters of routine immunisation programmes (see also campaign). They include strategies such as child health days, which can be used to offer supplemental doses of a vaccine or reach children who were not previously reached, and are an effective adjunct to routine immunisation for accelerating disease control efforts. SIAs also provide the opportunity to deliver additional vaccines or other health interventions, such as vitamin A capsules to strengthen the child's immune system, deworming tablets and insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria, to a large group of individuals.
A tetravalent vaccine is a vaccine that includes four antigens. GAVI provides tetravalent DTP- Hep B and tetravalent DTP-Hib vaccines.
Typhoid remains a serious public health problem around the world, with an estimated 16 to 33 million cases and 216,000 to 600,000 deaths annually. New generation vaccines against the disease are expected soon. Typhoid vaccine has been prioritised for GAVI's future vaccine portfolio.