Financial sustainability plan (FSP)
The financial sustainability plan is a document that assesses the key financing challenges facing the national immunisation programme within the broader health financing context. It is developed by countries together with GAVI Alliance partners. It describes a government’s approach to mobilising and effectively using financial resources to support medium- and long-term programme objectives. Previously, all countries receiving GAVI support were required to submit a financial sustainability plan in their second year of GAVI support.
In an attempt to reduce the planning and application requirements on countries and to build on existing national processes, the FSP elements were transitioned into the cMYP guidelines in late 2006.
Frontloading means to make funding available upfront. It is based on the idea that initial, substantial investments lead to a greater proportional impact than investments distributed evenly over time. The International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm) generates funds that allow countries to scale up immunisation and related services quickly.
The GAVI Alliance
The GAVI Alliance is a public-private global health partnership committed to saving children's lives and protecting people's health by increasing access to immunisation in poor countries. The Alliance brings together developing country and donor governments, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialised and developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society organisations, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other private philanthropists.
GAVI Alliance Business Plan 2011-2015
The GAVI Alliance Business Plan covers the period of 2011–2015. It includes detailed two-year operational plan, which contains programmes, deliverables, activities, indicators, targets, budget and accountabilities.
GAVI Alliance Strategy 2011-2015
In June 2010, the GAVI Alliance Board approved the GAVI Alliance Strategy for 2011–2015. It provides an overview of GAVI‟s mission, operating principles, strategic goals and objectives, as well as the indicators that will be used to measure progress towards achieving the mission. The strategy is articulated around four goals: (i) accelerate the uptake and use of underused and new vaccines, (ii) contribute to strengthening the capacity of integrated health systems to deliver immunisation, (iii) increase the predictability of global financing and improve the sustainability of national financing for immunisation, and (iv) shape vaccine markets.
In 2007, the GAVI Fund launched the Immunize Every Child Campaign (note: the use of “z” in Immunize here is correct) to attract new private funding sources and build a vocal and visible private donor community. In 2010, the name was changed to the GAVI Campaign.
The GAVI Fund is a 501(c)3 charity incorporated under US law, based in the United States of America, and created to be the financing arm of the GAVI Alliance. It coordinates the funding of Alliance activities from a variety of sources, also undertaking various fiduciary responsibilities including asset management and investment, financial control, auditing, and accounting.
Global health partnerships
These are collaborative partnerships with an international reach that span different sectors and areas of expertise and that work together toward a common health goal. They have become the dominant organisational model for addressing complex global health issues. They aim to produce benefits beyond those which individual partners could achieve.
Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS)
The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) is a 10-year plan (2006-2015) developed by WHO and UNICEF in consultation with the broader health and immunisation community. The four main approaches are (1) to protect more people in a changing world; (2) to introduce new vaccines and technologies; (3) to integrate immunisation, other linked health interventions and surveillance in the health systems context; and (4) to immunise in the context of global interdependence.
Global Polio Eradication Initiative
In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, spearheaded by WHO, Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and UNICEF. At that time, wild poliovirus was endemic in more than 125 countries on five continents, paralysing more than 1,000 children every day. In 2007, GAVI provided support to the initiative through IFFIm funds.
Gross national income (GNI)
Gross national income is the total value produced within a country (i.e., its gross domestic product) together with its income received from other countries (such as interests and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium that causes infection, mainly in children under five, and can lead to life-threatening meningitis and pneumonia. Safe and effective Hib conjugate vaccines were first licensed in the early 1990s and are now introduced in most GAVI-eligible countries, mainly as part of the pentavalent vaccine. See pentavalent vaccine.
Health sector coordination committee (HSCC)
A health sector coordination committee, or equivalent, is the highest-level group that helps to support programmes related to the health sector in a developing country. The HSCC is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of the National Health Sector Plan. In addition to government, this group usually includes agencies (bilateral and multilateral) and civil society organisations.
Health system strengthening (HSS)
GAVI HSS support is designed to help countries identify, prioritise and overcome health system bottlenecks and barriers to the delivery of immunisation and other child health packages, in the context of the national health plan. The health sector coordination committee decides how HSS funds will be allocated.
Hepatitis B (HepB)
Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver, potentially causing liver cancer, liver failure and death. A safe and effective vaccine was first licensed in 1982, but it was not widely used in developing countries until GAVI started providing funding in 2000. GAVI supports the use of hepatitis B vaccine, mainly in combination with other vaccines.
In 2005, GAVI established the Hib Initiative to support countries in making informed decisions on whether to introduce the vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) into routine immunisation programmes. The GAVI Fund Board approved US$ 28 million for 2005–2009 for the Hib Initiative. At the beginning of 2009, the Hib Initiative was folded into the Accelerated Vaccine Introduction initiative (AVI).
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Genital HPV is a virus primarily transmitted by sexual contact. HPVs are highly transmissible, and most sexually active men and women will acquire an HPV infection at some time in their lives. Most HPV infections are transient and benign. However, persistent genital infection can lead to the development of cancer, for example of the cervix. Since cervical cancer particularly affects women in the developing world, GAVI has prioritised HPV vaccine for its future portfolio.
Immunisation services support
ISS funding is a performance-based grant that countries can use to improve their immunisation performance. ISS provides an incentive of US$ 20 for each additional child vaccinated with three doses of DTP vaccine compared with the previous year.
Immunize Every Child Campaign
For more information on the GAVI Campaign, please visit the GAVI Campaign website.
Independent Review Committee (IRC)
The IRC is a group of independent experts who review and evaluate all proposals and annual progress reports submitted to the GAVI Secretariat. Proposals and reports of an appropriate quality are recommended for approval by the GAVI Alliance Board. The IRC is composed of two committees, which convene separately and at different times of the year:
- The Independent Review Committee for new proposals.
- The Independent Review Committee for monitoring.
Injection safety support (INS)
GAVI supports injection safety. GAVI provides INS in the form of injection safety materials (autodisable syringes and safety boxes for the disposal of syringes). The support is provided as a one-off, three-year grant available to all GAVI-eligible countries. An evaluation has shown that, out of the 58 countries that have completed the INS support, 56 have been able to sustain safe injection practices.
Innovative financing for development
Innovative funding mechanisms seek to increase predictable, long-term funding for development raised from sources other than direct government aid. For example, new instruments draw on new actors in development such as the capital markets and industry. GAVI is expanding the use of two approaches that use private-sector strategies to help overcome historic limitations to development funding. These are the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm) and the Advance Market Commitment (AMC). The former reflects the need to ensure predictable flows throughout an aid cycle; the latter to meet disproportionately high costs in the early stages of implementing aid programmes.
Inter-agency coordination committee (ICC)
The Interagency Coordination Committee is a key coordinating mechanism for immunisation services in developing countries. It is usually chaired by the ministry of health, and membership includes development partners such as WHO, UNICEF, nongovernmental organisations and donor governments. GAVI requires ICC signatures on applications for new and underused vaccine support (NVS), immunisation services support (ISS) and injection safety support (INS) applications and annual progress reports.
International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA)
IFPMA is the industry association for research-based pharmaceutical companies in industrialised countries. It is composed primarily of multinational companies and is represented through one seat on the GAVI Alliance Board. The IFPMA has a vaccines and biological committee that meets regularly to discuss GAVI issues in advance of meetings of the GAVI Alliance Board.
International Finance Facility for Immunisation, The (IFFIm)
IFFIm raises money by issuing bonds on capital markets, converting government pledges into immediately available resources for immunisation and health system strengthening. The long-term pledges are used to repay the IFFIm bonds. For more information, see: www.iff-immunisation.org.
International Finance Facility, The (IFF)
In January 2003, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland launched a proposal for an International Finance Facility (IFF). The IFF is designed to frontload aid to help meet the Millennium Development Goals. At the July 2005 Gleneagles summit, a group of G8 and other countries decided to take forward innovative financing mechanisms including a pilot of the IFF, the IFF for Immunisation (IFFIm).
International Health Partnership (IHP)
The IHP was launched by UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown in 2007. It aims to improve the way that international agencies, donors and poor countries work together to develop and implement health plans in order to create and improve health services and ultimately save more lives.
Japanese encephalitis is a serious viral infection which affects the brain and is transmitted by mosquitoes. The virus hits particularly hard in Asia, where WHO estimates that 10,000 to 15,000 people die from it each year. Japanese encephalitis has been prioritised for GAVI‟s future vaccine portfolio.
Joint reporting form (JRF)
A JRF is a data collection tool that is completed by national authorities and sent to UNICEF and WHO during the second quarter of each year. It contains national level data on the incidence of selected vaccine-preventable diseases, immunisation coverage, vaccine supply, recommended immunisation schedules, and other information related to immunisation in developing countries. GAVI uses the data to monitor developing countries‟ achievements. The compiled data are available on the WHO and Childinfo websites.