Accelerated development and introduction plans (ADIPs)
Accelerated development and introduction plans are time-limited programs designed to address challenges to making available new life-saving vaccines in developing countries. The aim of an ADIP is to shorten the time lag between a vaccine being proven to be safe and effective for use and its development for specific introduction in poor countries. In June 2002, the GAVI Board endorsed the creation of two ADIPs: the Rotavirus Vaccine Program and the PneumoADIP. Working with GAVI, WHO, the vaccine industry, and other partners, the ADIPs support the establishment of surveillance systems, conduct cost-effectiveness analyses, support demand forecasting, and engage in both global and country level advocacy. During 2008, focus will shift from vaccine development to introduction.
Accelerated Vaccine Introduction initiative (AVI)
The objective of the AVI is to help countries make evidence-based decisions on whether to introduce pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, and, if they decide to do so, support them in rapidly introducing the vaccines. It works as a consortium including the GAVI Secretariat, WHO, UNICEF, PATH, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. The joint AVI work plan comprises activities such as special studies, communications and advocacy, and strategic vaccine forecasting.
Advance market commitment (AMC)
The AMC stimulates the development and manufacture of affordable vaccines, tailored to the needs of developing countries. Donor commitments give vaccine manufacturers the incentive to invest in vaccine research and development, and to expand manufacturing capacity. In exchange, companies sign legally-binding commitments to provide the vaccines to developing countries at a long-term, affordable price. This enables governments to budget and plan for their immunisation programmes. A pilot AMC for pneumococcal vaccines is being implemented from 2010 onwards.
Annual progress report (APR)
Implementing countries are required to provide an annual progress report (APR) to the GAVI Secretariat by 15 May each year. The Independent Review Committee reviews each report to determine whether funding should continue, and whether adjustments are needed. Before the APR is submitted for review, it is screened by partners in the country and certified by each country‟s Interagency Coordinating Committee. See also Independent Review Committee. Note that this is different from the GAVI Alliance Annual Progress Report.
An antigen is the active component of a vaccine. Antigens stimulate the body to produce antibodies that fight off disease.
Auto-disable syringes (AD syringes)
AD syringes are single-use syringes with a blocking mechanism that prevent them from being reused. GAVI has supported the use of AD syringes as part of its injection safety support.
A birth cohort is the number of children born in a particular period.
A buffer stock is an additional stock of vaccine kept at country level. To ensure that countries have sufficient vaccines, the buffer stock is normally assumed to be 25% of the vaccine requirements (three months‟ supply) for any given year. All GAVI support for new and underused vaccines takes into account the need for a buffer stock.
Burden of disease
The burden of disease refers to the magnitude of a particular disease in an area, measured by mortality (deaths), morbidity (persons affected by disease or illness) and other indicators, such as permanent disability. Knowledge of the burden of disease can help determine where health investments are needed.
Vaccination campaigns are part of a range of immunisation strategies that reach beyond routine immunisation programmes in terms of, for instance, the number of doses or the target population age. Immunisation campaigns can greatly reduce person-to-person transmission of contagious diseases and are an effective complement to routine immunisation for accelerating disease control efforts.
Children’s Vaccine Initiative (CVI)
Founded after the World Summit for Children in September 1990, the CVI had three objectives: (1) the immunisation of all children; (2) research to determine the feasibility of a single-dose multivalent vaccine; and (3) introduction of new vaccines against infectious diseases. The CVI was the predecessor to the GAVI Alliance.
Civil society organisation (CSO)
Civil society organisations (CSOs) include non-governmental organisations, community-based groups, academic institutions, professional organisations, faith-based organisations, women‟s organisations, technical institutes and research institutions. GAVI support for CSO involvement in immunisation has been available since 2007.
Implementing countries share the cost of vaccines supplied by the GAVI Alliance through co-financing. GAVI's co-financing policy requires countries to procure a portion of their vaccines themselves and institutionalise vaccine spending in national budgets and health planning. This helps put implementing countries on a path to financial sustainability.
The cold chain is a system used for keeping and distributing vaccines at the correct temperature so they remain sterile and potent until they reach the end-user. It consists of a series of cold storage and transport links, such as refrigerators, cold boxes and vaccine carriers with cool packs. Most vaccines should be kept at between 2°C and 8°C. While some are damaged by freezing, others are damaged by excessive heat. All GAVI-supplied vaccines are equipped with vaccine vial monitors. See also vaccine vial monitor (VVMs).
Combination vaccines contain antigens against several infectious agents or pathogens in one injection. Examples of combination vaccines are the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B (DTP-hep B) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTP-hep B-Hib) vaccines.
Comprehensive multi-year plan for immunisation (cMYP)
A comprehensive multi-year plan for immunisation is a single government plan that consolidates several immunisation activities. GAVI requires countries to submit a cMYP along with the standard proposal form when applying for GAVI support. The cMYP replaces the Financial Sustainability Plan.
This is a vaccine that is formulated by chemically linking sugar chains derived from the pathogen to a protein backbone. Conjugate vaccines supported by GAVI include Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.
Continuum of care
The concept of a continuum of care encompasses two dimensions: time and place. Care is provided as a continuum throughout the life cycle, including adolescence, pregnancy, child birth and childhood (time); and in a seamless continuum that spans the home, community, health centre and hospital (place). See also maternal, newborn and child health.
Data quality audit (DQA)
The DQA is used to review immunisation records at country level in order to estimate the accuracy of the Expanded Programme on Immunization reporting system. It was designed to verify reported performance, as well as to improve immunisation monitoring and reporting systems. In order to receive the reward element of GAVI immunisation services support, countries must demonstrate an increase in the number of additional infants immunised compared with the previous year and have passed a DQA. See also Immunisation Services Support (ISS).
Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN)
The Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) is a global group of vaccine producers from developing and middle-income countries that exists to facilitate networking and collaboration. It is represented by one seat on the GAVI Alliance Board.
Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTP)
Three combined doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine are usually provided in the first six months of life. Coverage with three doses of DTP vaccine, known as DTP3, is an indicator used by WHO and GAVI to measure the strength of an immunisation programme.
Direct government funding
Cash received directly from government donors is channeled into the GAVI Fund Account or a World Bank Trust Account being held on behalf of the GAVI Fund. Government contributions are increasingly being made on a multi-year basis. Through both its government funding and its innovative financing mechanisms, GAVI seeks to secure a robust, predictable, multi-year funding base sufficient to meet long term commitments made to GAVI-eligible countries.
Eligible country (also "GAVI-eligible country")
GAVI supports countries with the lowest national income based on World Bank data. Countries with a GNI per capita of below US$ 1,500 are eligible for GAVI support. From 2011, an eligibility threshold of US$ 1,500 per capita GNI will apply. In addition, in order for a country to qualify for vaccine support, its DTP3 coverage will have to be at least 70%. Existing support to countries will be honoured through to the end of multi-year commitments and, for vaccine support, at least until 2015.
Evaluation requires a systematic and objective assessment of design, implementation, and results. The main objective of evaluation at GAVI is to improve the performance of GAVI operations and policies by incorporation of lessons learnt into the decision-making process.
Every Child Council
The Every Child Council, an honourary group, was established in 2007 to support the work of GAVI’s private philanthropy effort, the Immunize Every Child Campaign. It includes individuals from public and private life who have made or secured significant financial commitments to support the immunisation cause.
Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
Since its inception in 1974, the Expanded Programme on Immunization has brought together partners under the auspices of the WHO to increase immunisation coverage from the then low levels of 5% to the current levels, which are close to 80%. The traditional EPI vaccines are BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin, against tuberculosis), DTP (against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis), oral polio vaccine (OPV), and measles.